Exchange And Completion In Conveyancing

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In the intricate world of property transactions, the terms “exchange” and “completion” hold a pivotal role, representing crucial milestones that can either make or break the deal. 

Whether you’re a seasoned property investor or a first-time homebuyer, understanding the intricacies of “exchange and completion” in conveyancing is essential to navigate the complex landscape of real estate transactions with confidence and clarity.

In this article, we delve into the significance of these two fundamental stages, unraveling their complexities to shed light on the seamless interplay between buyer and seller, and the ultimate realization of property ownership. 

What is Exchange And Completion of Contracts?

Exchange and completion are two significant milestones in the process of buying or selling a property in the realm of conveyancing. These stages mark the finalization of the transaction and the transfer of ownership from the seller to the buyer.

Exchange of Contracts

The exchange of contracts is a pivotal moment in the property transaction process. It occurs when both the buyer and seller have signed identical copies of the contract and their legal representatives, typically conveyancers or solicitors, swap these signed contracts. This act is usually done over the phone, and it creates a legally binding agreement between the parties involved.

Once the exchange has taken place, the terms and conditions specified in the contract become legally enforceable. This means that the buyer is obligated to purchase the property, and the seller is obliged to sell it at the agreed-upon price. Additionally, a deposit, usually a percentage of the property’s purchase price, is paid by the buyer upon exchange.

Before the exchange of contracts, either party can withdraw from the transaction without legal consequences. However, after the exchange, withdrawing from the deal may result in significant financial penalties and legal implications.

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Completion of Contracts

Completion is the moment when the property transaction is finalized, and the legal ownership of the property is transferred from the seller to the buyer. The completion date is pre-agreed by both parties during the exchange of contracts. It is typically a few weeks after the exchange, allowing time for necessary arrangements, such as obtaining a mortgage and conducting property surveys.

On the completion date, the buyer’s solicitor transfers the agreed-upon purchase price to the seller’s solicitor, and in return, the buyer receives the keys to the property. At this point, the buyer officially becomes the legal owner of the property, and the seller must vacate the premises.

Completion day can be an exciting and sometimes nerve-wracking experience for both buyers and sellers, as it signifies the successful conclusion of the property transaction.

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What Happens Between Exchange of Contracts and Completion?

The period between the exchange of contracts and completion is a crucial time in the property transaction process, often referred to as the “completion period.” 

1- Securing Funds and Finalizing Finances

Buyers need to ensure that they have the necessary funds available for the completion date. If the purchase is reliant on a mortgage, they must work closely with their mortgage lender to finalize the mortgage application and ensure that all requirements are met for a smooth transaction.

2- Property Inspections and Surveys

Buyers may choose to conduct a final property inspection or commission a property survey during this time. This step allows them to verify the property’s condition and identify any potential issues before completion. If any significant concerns arise, they can address them with the seller or negotiate potential remedies.

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3- Completion Statement and Transfer of Funds

The buyer’s solicitor prepares a completion statement detailing the final amount required for the property purchase, which includes the purchase price, any additional costs, and adjustments for taxes and fees. The buyer transfers these funds to their solicitor’s account to be ready for completion.

4- Finalizing Legal and Administrative Details

Both parties’ solicitors will be working on various legal and administrative tasks during this period. They ensure that all necessary documents, including the Transfer Deed and other relevant paperwork, are in order for a seamless transfer of ownership on the completion date.

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5- Exchange of Keys and Vacating the Property

The seller is responsible for vacating the property by the agreed completion date. On the day of completion, the seller’s solicitor receives the funds from the buyer’s solicitor, and in exchange, the buyer receives the keys to the property, officially taking possession.

6- Utility and Service Transfer

Buyers usually arrange for the transfer of utilities and services (e.g., gas, electricity, water, internet) into their name from the completion date onwards. The seller informs the relevant providers about the change in ownership to avoid any disruptions in services.

7- Moving Preparations

Both buyers and sellers will make moving preparations during this period. Sellers may arrange for the removal of their belongings, while buyers organize their move-in plans to the new property.

8- Final Checks and Confirmations

Before completion day, the solicitors perform final checks to ensure that all outstanding tasks have been completed, all necessary documents are signed, and the property is ready for the handover.

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How Long Between Exchange and Completion?

The time between exchange and completion in a property transaction can vary and is typically agreed upon by both the buyer and seller during the exchange of contracts. The duration between these two crucial stages can be as short as a few days or as long as several weeks, depending on various factors and the preferences of the parties involved.

In the UK, the average time between exchange and completion is usually around 1 to 2 weeks. However, it’s important to note that this timeline is not set in stone and can be adjusted based on individual circumstances and requirements.

It’s essential for both parties to communicate effectively during this period, as any delays or changes in circumstances should be discussed and agreed upon promptly. Flexibility and cooperation between the buyer and seller, as well as their legal representatives, can significantly contribute to a smooth and successful completion process.


The exchange and completion stages in conveyancing are critical milestones that mark the culmination of a property transaction in the UK. These two distinct phases are fundamental to the successful transfer of property ownership and require meticulous attention to detail and adherence to legal procedures.

The exchange of contracts solidifies the parties’ commitment to the transaction, outlining the terms and conditions of the deal, while completion is the final step where the funds are transferred, and ownership officially changes hands.

Throughout this intricate process, the expertise of a skilled conveyancer proves invaluable in navigating potential pitfalls, ensuring smooth communication between all parties involved, and safeguarding the interests of both buyers and sellers. By understanding the significance of these stages and entrusting qualified professionals, individuals can embark on their property journey with confidence, knowing that their transaction is in capable hands.

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